Prevalence and Associated Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan Hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan

Abdullah Rastin , Mirwais Ramozi, Abass Ali Ramozi, Ahmad Jawed Jahid


Background: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a global health issue affecting a significant portion of the world's population, with diabetes and hypertension as its prime causes. The disease's incidence varies within countries by ethnicity and social determinants, and it contributes substantially to noncommunicable diseases. Accurate assessment and staging of CKD are crucial for appropriate management. This study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of CKD among patients referred to Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan Hospital in Kabul, Afghanistan. Methodology: The study utilized a case series-based descriptive design, and the study population comprised 87 CKD patients out of 33,836 patients who visited the hospital's emergency department. Data were collected through multi-stage sampling method, with demographic details and clinical findings analyzed using Excel 2016. All ethical guidelines were strictly adhered to, ensuring participants' voluntary participation and confidentiality. Result: The results revealed that diabetes mellitus was the primary cause of CKD in 60% of cases, followed by hypertension in 34%. Females comprised 65.5% of CKD patients, with diabetes mellitus being the most common cause in both genders. The majority of patients were between the ages of 41 and 60, and 34.5% of patients had associated anemia. The disease stages varied, with the majority of patients in stage 2. The majority of patients (80%) were managed with medical therapy, while 20% required referral to a dialysis center. The majority of CKD patients (79.3%) were from the Central zone. These findings underscore the need for targeted interventions to manage the burden of CKD effectively. Conclusion: A study at Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan Hospital in Kabul found CKD affecting 2.63% of hospitalized patients, mostly caused by diabetes (60%) and hypertension (34%). Females and middle-aged individuals were primarily affected, with anemia as a common comorbidity. Early detection, tailored interventions for diabetes and hypertension, improved dialysis access, and regional focus are necessary to combat CKD's burden in this population. 

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