Investigation of Leishmaniasis Events in Afghanistan

Zabihullah Iqbal , Ali Ahmad Yousefi , Rahim Hassili , Aboozar Afzali


Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by parasites of the Leishmania type. It species spreads by the bite of certain types of sandflies. The disease can present in three main ways: cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral leishmaniasis. It’s a common parasitic disease of human and some animals, the incidence of secondary infection in cutaneous lesions, can cause serious problems and even death. The rate of its Incidence is high in developing countries including Afghanistan. The World Health Organization reports more than three hundred and fifty million people at risk of leishmaniasis, as many as 12 million people are believed to be currently infected, and an estimated of 2 million new cases every year. NMLCP the National Malaria and Leshmainia program of Afghanistan reports the highest number of Leishmaniasis in Kabul (14,940 cases) and the lowest in Zabul province (11 cases) in 2021. The 13 district of Kabul city indicate the most number of the disease. The incidence of leishmaniasis is not significant between man and women, but slightly increased in female in 2012 and 2021. The high rate of leishmaniasis according to NMLCP in Afghanistan was in 2009 (41072) and low in 2004 (9203). Kabul city has the highest rates of leishmaniasis then other provinces in Afghanistan, as indicated that the high rate was in 2012 (15862) and the low rate in 2014 (6488). This study will guide further practical studies in different region of Afghanistan. More practical studies regarding the prevalence of the parasite and molecular studies for differentiation of different kind of lieshmania in the country are recommended.

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